Researchers at the University of Washington uses a sensor box, including a GPS module, a GSM cellular modem, a Raspberry Pi, a cellular hotspot, and an Android phone running SnoopSnitch, to collect 2G cells information and detect IMSI catchers, as you can read in the wired.com article.
They identified and mapped out 1,400 cell towers in Seattle, and 700 in Milwaukee, finding anomalies in the Seattle area.
Is far from the intention of this project focusing on creating attacks or disclosure of the methods to achieve, but it is clear that when you want to detect attacks, You should study them to understand and get ahead or warn them.
By way of introduction I have prepared this short article for those who want to know what a false station (also called BTS or Fake IMSI Catcher). In the DefCon security event 18, Chris Paget we illustrated in his talk entitled “PRACTICAL CELLPHONE SPYING”, how to steal the identity of subscribers to a GSM network by creating a false cell using a USRP as hardware for transmitting and receiving terminals to a Linux computer and OpenBTS and Asterisk to set the cell and allow calls to victims.
This is the video of the talk:
A year later (2011) our compatriots Jose Perez David Stang and exposed at Blackhat DC security conference 2011 how to apply the same attack but networks GPRS / EDGE, afectanto even UMTS / HSPA: